until recently refereed to development processes in low-income countries. However, a global consensus has emerged that all countries, regardless of their ecomomic or political might, their level of GDP per capita, or their human development index, are in a process of ‘development’ – and need to address their specific gaps in economic, social, ecological, gender equality, and political rights. The objective of ‘development’ everywhere needs to be about structural change, social transformation, human rights, gender justice and child rights, economic equity, and about halting and reversing man-made climate change. These objectives are aspirations for all countries and all peoples. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Assembly applies to all countries and every person on the planet. Ths will pose many new challenges:

  • how to ensure equity in development opportunities among countries,
  • how low-income countries will catch up,
  • how to adopt sustainable consumption and production patterns in the over consuming North while increasing the level of employment and decent, productive, creative work – in all  countries.

A report by UNRISD – Policy Innovations for Transformative Change – addresses these challenges.

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